Ancient History(Class VI)
What, Where, How and When?
Skilled Gatherers: People who lived along the banks of the river, who gathered their food, collected roots, fruits and had great knowledge about the vast wealth of plants in surrounding forests and also hunted animals.
Manuscripts: Handwritten scripts about thousand years ago(usually written in palm leaf or bark of the tree called birch). They are mainly written in Sanskrit, Tamil or Prakrit(ordinary people’s language).
Inscriptions: Writings on relatively hard surfaces like stone or metal.
Tributaries: Smaller rivers that flow into the larger river.
Learning our past leads us to understand our ancient culture and livelihood. Our lifestyle, our food habits, our occupation, our games, knowledge of every single thing comes from the study of our past.
People lived on the banks of the rivers. Sulaiman and Kirthar Hills are one of the places where men and women began growing crops and rearing animals. Garo Hills and the Vindhyas are the places were agriculture developed and rice was first grown. About 4700 years ago, on the banks of river Indus and its tributaries cities flourished. But around 2500 years ago, new cities developed on the banks of Ganga and its tributaries.
People traveled from place to place in search of livelihood and also sometimes to escape natural calamities like floods or droughts, even though the Great Himalayas, deserts, seas, and rivers made their path dangerous. Sometimes, they traveled to conquer lands, to spread religious teachings and sometimes, just for a mere adventure.
Our Country is called India and Bharat, and they originated from:
India: It comes from the word Indus, called Sindhu in Sanskrit. The Iranians and Greeks, who came through Northwest were familiar with Indus and called it Indos or Hindos. So, the land east of the river is called India.
Bharat: Bharata was used for a group of people who lived in the Northwest and are mentioned in Rigveda.
We can study our past by reading manuscripts and inscriptions, that were written hundreds of years ago which helps us to understand our past more easily. Still, most of the manuscripts are either eaten away by insects or destroyed for some reason. But few have survived as they were preserved in temples or monasteries. Inscriptions are basically the king’s orders which are supposed to be followed by the citizens.
Historians are scholars who study the past and often use the word source to refer to the origin from where the information has been obtained. While Archaeologists are those who study human history and prehistory through the excavation of sites and analysis of artifacts. Basically, Historians and Archaeologists are like detectives, who investigate our past.
Time frames of History:
Historians use a chronological order to understand time more easily. So, the Birth of Jesus(founder of Christianity) is considered as the YEAR ZERO. Any event before the birth of Jesus is considered Before Christ(BC) or Before Common Era(BCE) and any event after the birth of Jesus is considered Anno Domini(AD) or Common Era(CE).
Why South Asia is often called Subcontinent?
Although it is smaller than a continent, it is very large and is separated from the rest of Asia by seas, hills, and mountains. It comprised of present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, and Sri Lanka.