The Nobel Prize 2019 in the field of Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to William G. Kaelin Jr.,Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe, and Gregg L.Semenza.
Also, the Nobel Prize in the field of Physics has been awarded to James Peeblesfor theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology, and Miachel Mayor and Didier Quelox for discovering an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star.
Note that the Nobel Prize in the field of Physiology and Medicine, and Physics have been awarded since 1901.
Fields in which Nobel Prize is given
There are primarily six fields in which the Nobel Prize is awarded. They are: in the field of Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, Peace, Economics. (Note that the Nobel Prize in the rest of the fields is yet to announced.)
The official name of the Nobel Prize in the field of Economics is "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize".
The Nobel Prize in the field of Peace is awarded at Oslo(Captial of Norway).
The Nobel Prize in the other 5 fields is awarded at Stockholm(Capital of Sweden).
A person can not nominate themselves for the Nobel Prize. The person must be nominated by some other person.
Nobel Prize is given only to those persons who are alive.
Nobel prize in the field of Physics
Cosmology is a branch of astronomy concerned with the studies of the origin and evolution of the universe. The theoretical framework given by James Peebles will be the foundation for our study of the history of universe. It will help in exploring the history of the universe. (From the Big Bang theory to the present day)
The discovery by Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz started a revolution in astronomy and since their discovery, over 4,000 exoplanets(a planet outside our solar system) have been found in the Milky Way galaxy.
Nobel Prize in the field of Physiology or Medicine
William G. Kaelin Jr.,Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe, and Gregg L.Semenza have been given Nobel Prize for their work of identifying molecular machinery that regulates the activity of genes due to varying levels of oxygen.
They reveal the molecular mechanism that how the cells adapt to variations in oxygen supply
This discovery has given way to new promising strategies to fight anemia, cancer and many other diseases.