After the end of World War 2 in 1945, there are two world power came into existence. One is the USA and another is the USSR.
These two power started polarisation in the world i.e. A country can either with the USA or with the USSR but cannot with both.
But the developing countries at that time do not want to align with a particular side and they wanted to carry their foreign policies according to their interests.
This was a movement of countries by which they can represent their interests and priorities.
The idea of this movement was kept in the Asia-Africa Conference held in Bandung, Indonesia in 1955.
Thus, the NAM was an organization that was founded on the Brijuni islands in Yugoslavia in 1956.
It was formed by signing the declaration of Brijui on 19th July 1956.
From 1961 onwards, the summits of NAM countries started. The first NAM summit was held in Belgrade city of Yugoslavia. ( Note NAM summit do not occur annually and there is not a fixed pattern for this summit).
There are a total of 120 NAM countries in 2019. It also has some observers nations. Ex: China
About the declaration of Brijui and Founding fathers of NAM
The declaration of Brijuni was signed between Yugoslavia's President(Josip Broz Tito), Indian Prime Minister(Jawaharlal Nehru) and Egypt's President(Abdel Nasser).
The founding fathers of NAM are- Abdel Nasser(Egypt), Kwame Nkrumah(Ghana), Jawaharlal Nehru(India), Ahmed Sukarno(Indonesia), Josip Broz Tito(Yugoslavia).
The principle(five restraints/ Panchsheel) of NAM
The NAM countries will show mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty.
They will show mutual non -aggression.
They will show mutual non-interference in domestic affairs.
They will work for equality and for mutual benefits.
There will be a peaceful co-existence of all countries.
The NAM summit of 2019
The summit of 2019 is scheduled in the capital of Azerbaijan i.e Baku on 25th and 26th October.
The theme of the 2019 NAM summit was "Upholding Bandung Principles to ensure concerted and adequate response to the challenges of the contemporary world".(how to navigate in the contemporary world).
The Chairperson for the NAM summit of 2019 is the President of Venezuela Nicolas Maduro.
Indian PM skipped the NAM summit of this year. Note that he also missed the NAM summit of 2016.
The present geopolitical equation has decreases the importance of the NAM summit for India. (As most of the country in now is aligned either with the USA of with China/Russia).
This year our Vice President is representing India in NAM.
Kashmir issue in NAM
Pakistan raised the issue of Kashmir in the NAM summit which is against the five principles of NAM.
In response to this Vice President said that "Pakistan clearly needs to do much more to earn the confidence of the international community. Pakistan must abjure terrorism for its own good, for good of its neighbours and for the good of the world".
The drift between two major countries of NAM within its summit is really refutable.